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Eiffel Tower


The Eiffel Tower (French: La Tour Eiffel, [tuʁ ɛfɛl], nickname La dame de fer, the iron lady) is a puddle iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris. Built in 1889, it has become both a global icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world. The tower is the tallest building in Paris and the most-visited paid monument in the world; millions of people ascend it every year. Named for its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the tower was built as the entrance arch to the 1889 World's Fair.

The tower stands 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building. Upon its completion, it surpassed the Washington Monument to assume the title of tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years, until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930; however, due to the addition in 1957 of the antenna, the tower is now taller than the Chrysler Building. Not including broadcast antennas, it is the second-tallest structure in France after the 2004 Millau Viaduct.

The tower has three levels for visitors. Tickets can be purchased to ascend, by stairs or lift, to the first and second levels. The walk to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the walk from the first to the second level. The third and highest level is accessible only by elevator. Both the first and second levels feature restaurants.

The tower has become the most prominent symbol of both Paris and France, often in the establishing shot of films set in the city.

History

The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a very pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million rivets, in a structural design by Maurice Koechlin. Eiffel was assisted in the design by engineers Émile Nouguier and Maurice Koechlin and architect Stephen Sauvestre. The risk of accident was great as, unlike modern skyscrapers, the tower is an open frame without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took safety precautions, including the use of movable stagings, guard-rails and screens, only one man died. The tower was inaugurated on 31 March 1889, and opened on 6 May.

The tower was much criticised by the public when it was built, with many calling it an eyesore. Newspapers of the day were filled with angry letters from the arts community of Paris. One is quoted extensively in William Watson's US Government Printing Office publication of 1892 Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture: "And during twenty years we shall see, stretching over the entire city, still thrilling with the genius of so many centuries, we shall see stretching out like a black blot the odious shadow of the odious column built up of riveted iron plates." Signers of this letter included Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, Charles Gounod, Charles Garnier, Jean-Léon Gérôme, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, and Alexandre Dumas.

Novelist Guy de Maupassant - who claimed to hate the tower - supposedly ate lunch in the Tower's restaurant every day. When asked why, he answered that it was the one place in Paris where one could not see the structure. Today, the Tower is widely considered to be a striking piece of structural art.

One of the great Hollywood movie clichés is that the view from a Parisian window always includes the tower. In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris to 7 stories, only a very few of the taller buildings have a clear view of the tower.

Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years; it was to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it could be easily demolished) but as the tower proved valuable for communication purposes, it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit. The military used it to dispatch Parisian taxis to the front line during the First Battle of the Marne.




 Timeline of events

10 September 1889
  
  • Thomas Edison visited the tower. He signed the guestbook with the following message - To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison.
 1910
  • Father Theodor Wulf measured radiant energy at the top and bottom of the tower, discovering at the top more than was expected, and thereby detecting what are today known as cosmic rays.
4 February 1912
  
  • Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died after jumping 60 metres from the first deck of Eiffel tower with his home-made parachute.
1914
  • A radio transmitter located in the tower jammed German radio communications during the lead-up to the First Battle of the Marne.
1925
  • The con artist Victor Lustig "sold" the tower for scrap metal on two separate, but related occasions.
1930
  
  • The tower lost the title of the world's tallest structure when the Chrysler Building was completed in New York City.
1925 to 1934
  
  • Illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower's four sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time.
1940–1944
  
  • Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps to the summit. The parts to repair them were allegedly impossible to obtain because of the war. In 1940 German soldiers had to climb to the top to hoist the swastika, but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and was replaced by a smaller one. When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. A Frenchman scaled the tower during the German occupation to hang the French flag. In August 1944, when the Allies were nearing Paris, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order. Some say Hitler was later persuaded to keep the tower intact so it could later be used for communications. The lifts of the Tower were working normally within hours of the Liberation of Paris.
3 January 1956
  
  • A fire damaged the top of the tower.
1957
  
  • The present radio antenna was added to the top.
1980s
  
  • A restaurant and its supporting iron scaffolding midway up the tower was dismantled; it was purchased and reconstructed on St. Charles Avenue and Joesphine Street in the Garden District of New Orleans, Louisiana, by entrepreneurs John Onorio and Daniel Bonnot, originally as the Tour Eiffel Restaurant, later as the Red Room and now as the Cricket Club (owned by the New Orleans Culinary Institute). The restaurant was re-assembled from 11,000 pieces that crossed the Atlantic in a 40-foot (12 m) cargo container.
31 March 1984
  
  • Robert Moriarty flew a Beechcraft Bonanza through the arches of the tower.
1987
  
  • A.J. Hackett made one of his first bungee jumps from the top of the Eiffel Tower, using a special cord he had helped develop. Hackett was arrested by the Paris police upon reaching the ground.
27 October 1991
  
  • Thierry Devaux, along with mountain guide Hervé Calvayrac, performed a series of acrobatic figures of bungee jump (not allowed) from the second floor of the Tower. Facing the Champ de Mars, Thierry Devaux was using an electric winch between each figure to go back up. When firemen arrived, he stopped after the sixth bungee jump.
New Year's Eve 1999
  
  • The Eiffel Tower played host to Paris' Millennium Celebration. On this occasion, flashing lights and four high-power searchlights were installed on the tower, and fireworks were set off all over it. An exhibition above a cafeteria on the first floor commemorates this event. Since then, the light show has become a nightly event. The searchlights on top of the tower make it a beacon in Paris' night sky, and the 20,000 flash bulbs give the tower a sparkly appearance every hour on the hour.
28 November 2002
  
  • The tower received its 200,000,000th guest.
2004
  
  • The Eiffel Tower began hosting an ice skating rink on the first floor each winter.
Engraved names

Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers and other notable people. This engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century but restored in 1986–1987 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company contracted to operate business related to the Tower.
Design of the tower



  
Material

The pig iron structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes while the entire structure, including non-metal components, is approximately 10,000 tonnes. As a demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7,300 tonnes of the metal structure were melted down it would fill the 125 metre square base to a depth of only 6 cm (2.36 in), assuming the density of the metal to be 7.8 tonnes per cubic metre. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7.1 in) because of thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun.
Wind considerations

At the time the tower was built many people were shocked by its daring shape. Eiffel was criticised for the design and accused of trying to create something artistic, or inartistic according to the viewer, without regard to engineering. Eiffel and his engineers, however, as experienced bridge builders, understood the importance of wind forces and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world they had to be certain it would withstand the wind. In an interview reported in the newspaper Le Temps, Eiffel said:
  • Now to what phenomenon did I give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.

Researchers have found that Eiffel used empirical and graphical methods accounting for the effects of wind rather than a specific mathematical formula. Careful examination of the tower shows a basically exponential shape; actually two different exponentials, the lower section overdesigned to ensure resistance to wind forces. Several mathematical explanations have been proposed over the years for the success of the design; the most recent is described as a nonlinear integral equation based on counterbalancing the wind pressure on any point on the tower with the tension between the construction elements at that point. As a demonstration of the tower's effectiveness in wind resistance, it sways only 6–7 cm (2–3 in) in the wind.

Maintenance

Maintenance of the tower includes applying 50 to 60 tonnes of paint every seven years to protect it from rust.

Aesthetic considerations

In order to maintain a uniform appearance to an observer on the ground, three separate colours of paint are used on the tower, with the darkest on the bottom and the lightest at the top. On occasion the colour of the paint is changed; the tower is currently painted a shade of brownish-grey. On the first floor there are interactive consoles hosting a poll for the colour to use for a future session of painting.

The only non-structural elements are the four decorative grillwork arches, added in Stephen Sauvestre's sketches, which served to reassure visitors that the structure was safe, and to frame views of other nearby architecture.
Tourism
Popularity

More than 200,000,000 people have visited the tower since its construction in 1889, including 6,719,200 in 2006. The tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world.
Passenger Elevators

Ground to the second level

The original elevators to the first and second floors were provided by two companies. Both companies had to overcome many technical obstacles as neither company (or indeed any company) had experience with installing elevators climbing to such heights with large loads. The slanting tracks with changing angles further complicated the problems. The East and West elevators were supplied by the French company Roux Combaluzier Lepape, using hydraulically powered chains and rollers. Contemporary engravings of the elevators cars show that the passengers were seated at this time but it is not clear whether this was conceptual. It would be unnecessary to seat passengers for a journey of a couple of minutes. The North and South elevators were provided by the American company Otis using car designs similar to the original installation but using an improved hydraulic and cable scheme. The French elevators had a very poor performance and were replaced with the current installations in 1897 (West Pillar) and 1899 (East Pillar) by Fives-Lille using an improved hydraulic and rope scheme. Both of the original installations operated broadly on the principle of the Fives-Lille lifts.

The Fives-Lille elevators from ground level to the first and second levels are operated by cables and pulleys driven by massive water-powered pistons. The hydraulic scheme was somewhat unusual for the time in that it included three large counterweights of 200 tonnes each sitting on top of hydraulic rams which doubled up as accumulators for the water. As the elevators ascend the inclined arc of the pillars, the angle of ascent changes. The two elevator cabs are kept more or less level and indeed are level at the landings. The cab floors do take on a slight angle at times between landings.

The principle behind the elevators is similar to the operation of a block and tackle but in reverse. Two large hydraulic rams (over 1 metre diameter) with a 16 metre travel are mounted horizontally in the base of the pillar which pushes a carriage (the French word for it translates as chariot and this term will be used henceforth to distinguish it from the elevator carriage) with 16 large triple sheaves mounted on it. There are 14 similar sheaves mounted statically. Six wire ropes are rove back and forth between the sheaves such that each rope passes between the 2 sets of sheaves 7 times. The ropes then leave the final sheaves on the chariot and passes up through a series of guiding sheaves to above the second floor and then via a pair of triple sheaves back down to the lift carriage again passing guiding sheaves.

This arrangement means that the elevator carriage, complete with its cars and passengers, travels 8 times the distance that the rams move the chariot, the 128 metres from the ground to the second floor. The force exerted by the rams also has to be 8 times the total weight of the lift carriage, cars and passengers, plus extra to account for various losses such as friction. The hydraulic fluid was water, normally stored in three accumulators, complete with counterbalance weights. To make the elevator ascend, water was pumped using an electrically driven pump from the accumulators to the two rams. Since the counterbalance weights provided much of the pressure required, the pump only had to provide the extra effort. For the descent, it was only necessary to allow the water to flow back to the accumulators using a control valve. The lifts were operated by an operator perched precariously underneath the lift cars. His position (with a dummy operator) can still be seen on the lifts today.

The Fives-Lille elevators were completely upgraded in 1986 to meet modern safety requirements and to make the elevators easier to operate. A new computer controlled system was installed which completely automated the operation. One of the three counterbalances was taken out of use, and the cars were replaced with a more modern and lighter structure. Most importantly, the main driving force was removed from the original water pump such that the water hydraulic system provided only a counterbalancing function. The main driving force was transferred to a 320 kW electrically driven oil hydraulic pump which drives a pair of hydraulic motors on the chariot itself, thus providing the motive power. The new lift cars complete with their carriage and a full 92 passenger load weigh 22 tonnes.

Due to elasticity in the ropes and the time taken to get the cars level with the landings, each elevator in normal service takes an average of 8 minutes and 50 seconds to do the round trip, spending an average of 1 minute and 15 seconds at each floor. The average journey time between floors is just 1 minute.

The original Otis elevators in the North and South pillars in their turn proved to be inferior to the new (in 1899) French elevators and were scrapped from the South pillar in 1900 and from the North pillar in 1913 after failed attempts to re-power them with an electric motor. The North and South pillars were to remain without elevators until 1965 when increasing visitor numbers persuaded the operators to install a relatively standard and modern cable hoisted system in the north pillar using a cable-hauled counterbalance weight, but hoisted by a block and tackle system to reduce its travel to one third of the elevator travel. The counterbalance is clearly visible within the structure of the North pillar. This latter elevator was upgraded in 1995 with new cars and computer controls.

The South pillar acquired a completely new fairly standard electrically driven elevator in 1983 to serve the Jules Verne restaurant. This was also supplied by Otis. A further four-ton service elevator was added to the South pillar in 1989 by Otis to relieve the main elevators when moving relatively small loads or even just maintenance personnel.

The East and West hydraulic (water) elevator works are on display and, at least in theory, are open to the public in a small museum located in base of the East and West tower, which is somewhat hidden from public view. Because the massive mechanism requires frequent lubrication and attention, public access is often restricted. However, when open, the wait times are much less than the other, more popular, attractions. The rope mechanism of the North tower is visible to visitors as they exit from the elevator .

Second to the third level

The original elevators from the second to the third floor were also of a water-powered hydraulic design supplied by Léon Edoux. Instead of using a separate counterbalance, the two elevator cars counterbalanced each other. A pair of 81 metre long hydraulic rams were mounted on the second level reaching nearly half way up to the third level. An elevator car was mounted on top of the rams. Ropes ran from the top of this car up to a sheave on the third level and back down to a second car. The result of this arrangement was that each car only travelled half the distance between the second and third levels and passengers were required to change elevators halfway walking between the cars along a narrow gangway with a very impressive and relatively unobstructed downward view. The ten-ton cars held 65 passengers each or up to four tons.

One interesting feature of the original installation was that the hoisting rope ran through guides to retain it on windy days to prevent it flapping and becoming damaged. The guides were mechanically moved out of the way of the ascending car by the movement of the car itself. In spite of some antifreeze being added to the water that operated this system, it nevertheless had to close to the public from November to March each year.

The original elevators complete with their hydraulic mechanism were completely scrapped in 1982 after 97 years of service. They were replaced with two pairs of relatively standard rope hoisted cars which were able to operate all the year round. The cars operate in pairs with one providing the counterbalance for the other. Neither car can move unless both sets of doors are closed and both operators have given a start command. The commands from the cars to the hoisting mechanism are by radio obviating the necessity of a control cable. The replacement installation also has the advantage that the ascent can be made without changing cars and has reduced the ascent time from 8 minutes (including change) to 1 minute and 40 seconds. This installation also has guides for the hoisting ropes but they are electrically operated. The guide once it has moved out of the way as the car ascends automatically reverses when the car has passed to prevent the mechanism becoming snagged on the car on the downward journey in the event it has failed to completely clear the car. Unfortunately these elevators do not have the capacity to move as many people as the three public lower elevators and long lines to ascend to the third level are common. Most of the intermediate level structure present on the tower today was installed when the elevators were replaced and allows maintenance workers to take the elevator half way.

The replacement of these elevators allowed the restructuring of the criss-cross beams in upper part of the tower and further allowed the installation of two emergency staircases. These replaced the dangerous winding stairs that were installed when the tower was constructed.

Restaurants


The tower has two restaurants: Altitude 95, on the first floor 311 ft (95 m) above sea level; and the Jules Verne, an expensive gastronomical restaurant on the second floor, with a private lift. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. In January 2007, the multi-Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse was brought in to run Jules Verne.

Attempted relocation

According to interviews given in the early 1980s, Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau negotiated a secret agreement with French President Charles de Gaulle for the tower to be dismantled and temporarily relocated to Montreal to serve as a landmark and tourist attraction during Expo 67. The plan was allegedly vetoed by the company which operated the tower out of fear that the French government could refuse permission for the tower to be restored to its original location.

Reproductions

As one of the most iconic images in the world, the Eiffel Tower has been the inspiration for the creation of over 30 duplicates and similar towers around the world.

Communications

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the tower has been used for radio transmission. Until the 1950s, an occasionally modified set of antenna wires ran from the summit to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. They were connected to long-wave transmitters in small bunkers; in 1909, a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar and still exists today. On 20 November 1913, the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna, exchanged sustained wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory which used an antenna in Arlington, Virginia. The object of the transmissions was to measure the difference in longitude between Paris and Washington, D.C. Today, both radio and television stations broadcast their signals from the top of the Eiffel.

Image copyright claims
The tower and its representations have long been in the public domain. However, a French court ruled, in June 1990, that a special lighting display on the tower in 1989, for the tower's 100th anniversary, was an "original visual creation" protected by copyright. The Court of Cassation, France's judicial court of last resort, upheld the ruling in March 1992. The Société d'exploitation de la tour Eiffel (SETE) now considers any illumination of the tower to be under copyright. As a result, it is no longer legal to publish contemporary photographs of the tower at night without permission in France and some other countries.
The imposition of copyright has been controversial. The Director of Documentation for what was then the Société nouvelle d'exploitation de la tour Eiffel (SNTE), Stéphane Dieu, commented in January 2005, "It is really just a way to manage commercial use of the image, so that it isn't used in ways we don't approve." However, it also potentially has the effect of prohibiting tourist photographs of the tower at night from being published, as well as hindering non-profit and semi-commercial publication of images of the tower. Besides, French doctrine and jurisprudence traditionally allow pictures incorporating a copyrighted work as long as their presence is incidental or accessory to the main represented subject, a reasoning akin to the De minimis rule. Thus, SETE could not claim copyright on photographs of panoramas of Paris incorporating the lit tower.

In popular culture

The Eiffel Tower has appeared frequently in works of fiction because of its iconic nature. Movie critic Roger Ebert has noted in his online column that no matter where in Paris a film scene is set the Eiffel Tower will be visible in the background.

Major plot element

In some cases the tower is the key plot element or a significant plot element.
  • 1949 In The Man on the Eiffel Tower, the tower plays a central role, and the climax involves a climbing chase that predates the Mount Rushmore scene in North by Northwest.
  • 1951 In The Lavender Hill Mob, models of the tower are central to the plot, and the climax takes place on the real tower.
  • 1960 In Zazie dans le Métro a chase scene takes place on the stairs and crossbars of the tower.
  • 1980 John Denis' novel The Hostage Tower (written under Alistair Maclean) features an audacious scheme to capture the tower and use the threat of its destruction to extort millions from the French government. The story was adapted into a telemovie of the same name.
  • 1985 The James Bond film A View to a Kill contains a scene in the tower, including scenes in the Jules Verne restaurant there (filmed elsewhere), a fight on the stairway, and a BASE jump off the top of the tower as Bond (played for the last time by Roger Moore) chased a masked hitman who had just killed the French secret agent that Bond was meeting with (the killer was later revealed as May Day, played by Grace Jones). The video for the title song feature the members of Duran Duran as assassins and spies in or around the tower.
  • 1995 The third season finale of Highlander: The Series, "Finale part 2", Duncan MacLeod defeats the Immortal Kalas atop the tower.
  • 2007 Featured in Rush Hour 3 as the climax battle. Portions of the fight was actual footage of the famous landmark, whilst other sequences were replicated built sets.
  • 2007 The plot of the mystery Murder on the Eiffel Tower: A Victor Legris Mystery by Claude Izner involves a murder on the tower, during the Paris Exposition of 1889.
Destruction of the tower

In a notable subtype, the action of all or part of the work centers around the real or threatened destruction of the tower.
  • 1965 In The Great Race Jack Lemmon's character Professor Fate misfires a cannon, which causes the tower's collapse at the end of the film.
  • 1987 In The Real Ghostbusters episode The Ghostbusters in Paris, it is revealed that the Eiffel Tower was a massive Containment Unit to store ghosts, long before the Ghostbusters developed present day ghostbusting equipment.
  • 1992 In the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles episode Tower of Power, Krang has a giant electromagnet, and wants to use it to pull the Technodrome from its Dimension X asteroid location by using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna. The Eiffel Tower begins to be pulled loose from its foundations and towards the dimensional portal. At the last minute, Donatello destroys the generator and the Eiffel Tower falls down to the ground undamaged.
  • 1992 In the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles episode Rust Never Sleeps, Bebop and Rocksteady blast metals with Krangs "oxidizer rocket". The "oxidizer rocket" was originally planned by Krang to use to send the Technodrome to Earth, and when it failed, Krang thinks that it can be used by threatening to rust metal if the people don't surrender to Krang and Shredder. Even the Eiffel Tower gets blasted, and begins to collapse from rust. In the end, Donatello reverses Krang's device to turn the metals back to normal.
  • 1995 In the real-time strategy game of Command & Conquer, the tower is one of four selectable targets for the Global Defense Initiative's hijacked Ion Cannon weapon, during the ending sequence of the Brotherhood of Nod campaign.
  • 1996 The tower appears in the Paris level in the PlayStation game Twisted Metal 2. The tower can be blown up using a remote bomb and falls as a bridge to other buildings.
  • 1999 In the French Sentai amateur series France Five, the destruction of the tower in the main objective of the evil empire Lexos, as it generates a barrier around the planet that keeps it from sending armies en masse.
  • 2004 In Godzilla: Final Wars, Kamacuras attacks the tower.
  • 2004 In Team America: World Police, a rocket blows up the tower, and it crushes the Arc de Triomphe.
  • 2008 The History Channel's "Life After People" features the collapse of the tower around 200 years after the disappearance of humans, due to corrosion.
  • 2008 In Destroy All Humans! Path of the Furon, the tower (named the "Belleville Tower") is the site of a massive battle against oceanographer Henri Crosteau, who is in a giant squid-shaped robot and nearly destroys it in the process. The tower can also be destroyed by the player during free roam.
  • 2009 G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra depicts the tower being destroyed by a rapidly expanding cloud of metal-eating nanomachines.
Destruction of the city, or the world

In another notable sub-type, the tower and its destruction is used as a symbol of the real or threatened destruction of the city, or the world.
  • 1953 In The War of the Worlds, the tower and most (if not all) of Paris is destroyed by the martian attack. The tower can be seen in ruin at the end of the film depicting the death of the martians.
  • 1980 In Superman II, the tower (and the rest of Paris) are almost blown up by a terrorist nuclear bomb, and Lois Lane almost plunges to her death under its elevator. In the original 1977 script, one of the 3 Supervillains, Non, was originally supposed to destroy the tower with his heat vision.
  • 1994: in X-Men: TAS there is a TV version of the Dark Phoenix Saga. In the TV version (like in the comics) Jean Grey/Phoenix had destroyed a star with its planets around them; differently from the comics, however, the planets around the D'Bari star were desert. Later the Phoenix Force had been sedated by Xavier, but Jean and the X-Men are kidnapped by the Shi'ar who want to kill Jean because of the destruction of D'Bari and the fear that she could destroy entire galaxies. Xavier declare a battle between X-Men and the Imperial Guard in order to save Jean's life; Cyclops wants to spare Jean's life, but Jean fears that Phoenix could get free from the restraints and the next world could destroy could be Earth. Jean Grey decides to share her fears to Cyclops with her telepathy and she shows him images of herself destroying the Sun and the Earth. Among the structures who could be destroyed by the destruction of the sun the Tour Eiffel is shown.
  • 1996 The tower can be seen on TV in Independence Day (film), as the UFO lands on the tip of the structure.
  • 1996 In Mars Attacks!, the tower is melted/destroyed by Martians.
  • 1996 In Command & Conquer: Red Alert during the Allied campaign there is a mission where the player must stop a series of nuclear missiles from reaching Europe, if the Player fails these missions, a cutscene will play, showing a missile landing in paris with the eiffel tower in the foreground and detonating, creating an Enormous Mushroom cloud, and the Eiffel tower can be seen melting before the heat of the blast.
  • 1997 In the Simpsons episode Treehouse of Horror VIII the tower was used in the segment The HΩmega Man by the French government as a nuclear launch site to detonate a missile on Springfield.
  • 1998 The tower, along with Paris, is destroyed by a meteorite in Armageddon.
  • In posters promoting the 2004 film The Day After Tomorrow, the tower is depicted frozen in another ice age, with snow almost covering the base. It does not appear in the film itself.
  • In the 2005 Hallmark film Supernova, lightning bolts from a supernova fry the Eiffel Tower.
  • 2006 The Eiffel Tower is destroyed along with numerous other landmarks in Category 7: The End of the World.
  • 2007 28 Weeks Later ends with people infected with the fictional Rage Virus heading towards the Eiffel Tower.
  • 2007 The Umbrella Academy: Apocalypse Suite reveals the Eiffel Tower to be in reality a spaceship, piloted by a zombified version of Gustave Eiffel. Later, in the nearly world ending finale, the Eiffel tower falls out of the sky destroying the Umbrella Academy's base.
  • In the 2008 film The Day the Earth Stopped, the top of the tower is destroyed by a giant robot.
  • 2009 The game cover of Resistance: Retribution features the Eiffel Tower and sections of Paris invaded by the Chimera.
  • 2009 The animated movie, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, features the tower being toppled by a large-sized sandwich causing chaos in Paris.
Embodiment of Paris

In others, the tower is used as an embodiment of Paris, the symbol of the city, to set the scene for a film or other work centered on the city.
  • 1923 René Clair's Paris qui dort starts, ends and has many scenes on the tower.
  • 1939 In Ninotchka an involved flirtation takes place around a discussion of finding the Eiffel Tower around the 26 minute time point.
  • 1958 At the beginning of François Truffaut's The 400 Blows, the tower is seen between Parisian apartment blocks.
  • 1964 In Paris When It Sizzles, Richard's movie within the movie is called "The Girl Who Stole the Eiffel Tower" and several key scenes take place there.
  • 1995 In French Kiss, Kate misses seeing the tower several times while she wanders around Paris, but later spends several minutes rapturously watching it while on the train to Cannes (from which line it is not possible to see the tower).
  • 1995 In Forget Paris, Miki and Ellen are shown in front of the tower numerous times throughout the film.
  • 2003 In The Real World Paris television show on the US MTV network, the tower is seen.
Symbol of Paris

In yet others, as a symbol of the city in a more peripheral way.

  • 1953 At the end of The War of the Worlds, the tower is seen destroyed.
  • 1965 At the end of the Blake Edwards' The Great Race, starring Tony Curtis and Jack Lemmon, the tower is blown up by a misfired cannon shot from Professor Fate's car.
  • 1965 In Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines the remaining competitors (Orvil Newton and Richard Mays) are shown flying past the base of the tower when they arrive in Paris. Spectators are also shown crowded on top of the tower during this segment.
  • 1967 In The Beatles song, 'I Am the Walrus', a character called 'Semolina Pilchard' climbs the tower.
  • 1968–2001 A miniature tower is the home of the puppet Grandpere in Mister Rogers' Neighborhood of Make-Believe.
  • 1970 The tower is shown in the classic animated film The Aristocats.
  • 1979 In the Doctor Who serial City of Death, several scenes were filmed at the Tower, including the final scene of the final part of the serial.
  • 1985 In National Lampoon's European Vacation, Clark throws Rusty's beret off the tower. A dog, thinking it is a frisbee, jumps after it. Because a PG-13 was sought, the dog's life is saved by landing in a pond at the bottom of the tower.
  • 1992 The tower was the logo of the bid of Paris for the 1992 Summer Olympics.
Familiar visual element

Other uses, to establish the tower simply as a well known visual element.

  • 1994 In the French film Un indien dans la ville (aka Little Indian, Big City) 13-year-old Mimi-Siku (Ludwig Briand) who has been raised by a Native South American tribe, climbs partway up the tower in tribal costume. (The film was remade in English in 1997 as Jungle 2 Jungle, but the venue is changed to New York City and Mimi-Siku climbs the Statue of Liberty.)
  • 1995 In La Haine, the main protagonists lament the fact that they cannot switch the lights of the tower off like people can in the movies. The lights switch off just after they have given up and turned their backs on the tower.
  • 2001 In Moulin Rouge!, a pistol thrown from Montmartre by Christian (Ewan McGregor) during the finale bounces off the tower underneath the smiling moon.
Other appearances 
  • 1977 The tower appears in background shots in Wim Wenders's The American Friend
  • 1980 The song "Sexy Eiffel Tower", by the pop group Bow Wow Wow.
  • 1981 Condorman attempts to fly off the tower in the movie by the same name.
  • 1984 Robert J. Moriarty flew a Beechcraft V-35 Bonanza, N111MS, owned by Mike Smith of Mike Smith Speed Conversions in Johnson City, Kansas, through the arches under the Eiffel Tower in Paris.
  • 1993 In a Bill Nye the Science Guy episode titled "Magnetism", Bill Nye mentions two examples of "very tall metal towers" and the first one is the Eiffel Tower. The tower is shown onscreen when he mentions it.
  • 1996 - In the 1996 PlayStation game Twisted Metal 2 Players are able blow up the Eiffel Tower using a Remote Bomb
  • 1997 - Current Programs on the Fashion TV channel are headed by an animated Eiffel Tower logo complete with lighting display, accompanied by the words "MichelAdam Presents".
  • 1998 The tower is stolen by Rex the Runt and his associates in order to replace Blackpool Tower after it is destroyed by an explosion at Bob's International Hiccup Centre following Doctor Dog's takeover of the facility. After the Eiffel Tower is put into place at Blackpool Beach, the Union Jack is flown from its top and Bad Bob comments that "no one will even notice the difference."
  • 1999 The Bloodhound Gang's singe The Bad Touch music video, the Eiffel Tower can be seen in many shots.
  • 2000 In Rugrats in Paris: The Movie, the babies are atop the tower while using the giant Reptar invention.
  • 2000 In the real-time strategy game of Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2, Soviet forces turn the tower into a giant, extremely long ranged, incredibly powerful, and rapid firing tesla coil capable of destroying all French forces in the area and a major portion of the city. For copyright reasons, it is called the "Paris Tower" in the game, and has a radical change in design, however enough of the original design remains for the tower to be recognized.
  • 2000 The Eiffel Tower makes a couple of appearances in Max Steel; in overhead shots of the city, the building the European N-Tek base is located under, and the scene where an hour-long EMP is almost used.
  • 2001 In The Royal Tenenbaums, the tower appears reflected on the window in a brief scene of Margot Tenenbaum (Gwyneth Paltrow) with her French lover.
  • 2001 In Beyblade, The Eiffel tower is the arena to two battles in episode 33 and 34 of season 1.
  • 2003 The tower is seen in the Paris map of Midnight Club.
  • 2003 In The Core, the tower is seen when the Earth's electromagnetic field repairs itself.
  • 2003 The tower features in Looney Tunes: Back in Action.
  • 2003 In Le Divorce the tower features on the movie promo poster and is also mentioned a few times in the film. Two mentions are due to the purported tour guide audio for the tower being audible in the soundtrack.
  • 2003 The Deathray Davies song "The Girl Who Stole the Eiffel Tower"
  • 2004 In Van Helsing, the tower is under construction.
  • 2004 In Onimusha 3: Demon Siege, the tower is turned into a stronghold time-portal built by Genma Head-Scientist Guildenstein.
  • 2004 The tower flies and moves around Paris in the puppet version of Without a Paddle, in a scene that starts only after the credits end.
  • 2004 The Tower is the end location for a near fatal terrorist attack in the video game Shadow Ops: Red Mercury'
  • 2004 The tower is seen in Eurotrip, and mentioned when a protagonist asks whether they should "check out the huge line at the Eiffel Tower".
  • 2005 The tower features in A View from the Eiffel Tower by Montenegrin director Nikola Vukčević.
  • 2005 In Evil Genius, the tower can be shrunk and stolen.
  • 2005 The tower can be built as a World Wonder in Civilization IV.
  • 2005 In Munich the tower can be seen in the background.
  • 2006 In the game Blazing Angels: Squadrons of WWII, part of the French Resistance level requires the player to destroy German anti-aircraft guns on and around the tower.
  • 2005 In the BBC documentary End Days, when the accelerator of particles is destroyed, natural disaster hit Europe. The Eiffel Tower is seen on television when the hole reaches Europe.
  • 2007 In Mr. Bean's Holiday, Mr. Bean goes past the tower in a taxi.
  • 2008 In Impact, The Tower was seen when comets flying all over The Tower and A News Broadcaster standing right in front of the Tower.
  • 2008 In NYC: Tornado Terror, After destroying New York City, the tornado moves east towards Paris. A small tornado forms right in front of the tower and the green electricity that previously appeared in New York appears on the Tower briefly.
  • 2009 in video games The tower plays a vital role in the plot of The Saboteur.
  • 2010 In The Suite Life On Deck, Cody and Baley break up on the Tower, and Zack and Woody Skydive onto it.
  • 2010 In Phineas and Ferb: Summer Belongs to You!, Phineas and Isabella walk near the tower while Isbaella is singing "City of Love". Later, Ferb and Vanessa are on the tower. When Ferb decides to get her a flower, Vanessa has left from her dad, Dr. Doofenshritz.
  • 2010 In a 2010 episode of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno the host mentioned in his monologue that there's been a string of art thefts in Paris. He then showed a doctored news report from Paris with the Eiffel Tower being stolen via helicopter in the background.









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